D. B. Cousins, Y. Polyakov, A. Al Badawi, M. French, A. G. Schmidt, A. Jacob, B. Reynwar, K. Canida, A. Jaiswal, C. Mathew, H. Gamil, N. Neda, D. Soni, M. Maniatakos, B. Reagen, N. Zhang, Franz Franchetti, P. Brinich, Jeremy Johnson, P. Broderick, M. Franusich, B. Zhang, Z. Cheng and M. Pedram (arXiv, 2023)
TREBUCHET: Fully Homomorphic Encryption Accelerator for Deep Computation
Published paper (link to publisher)

Secure computation is of critical importance to not only the DoD, but across financial institutions, healthcare, and anywhere personally identifiable information (PII) is accessed. Traditional security techniques require data to be decrypted before performing any computation. When processed on untrusted systems the decrypted data is vulnerable to attacks to extract the sensitive information. To address these vulnerabilities Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) keeps the data encrypted during computation and secures the results, even in these untrusted environments. However, FHE requires a significant amount of computation to perform equivalent unencrypted operations. To be useful, FHE must significantly close the computation gap (within 10x) to make encrypted processing practical. To accomplish this ambitious goal the TREBUCHET project is leading research and development in FHE processing hardware to accelerate deep computations on encrypted data, as part of the DARPA MTO Data Privacy for Virtual Environments (DPRIVE) program. We accelerate the major secure standardized FHE schemes (BGV, BFV, CKKS, FHEW, etc.) at >=128-bit security while integrating with the open-source PALISADE and OpenFHE libraries currently used in the DoD and in industry. We utilize a novel tile-based chip design with highly parallel ALUs optimized for vectorized 128b modulo arithmetic. The TREBUCHET coprocessor design provides a highly modular, flexible, and extensible FHE accelerator for easy reconfiguration, deployment, integration and application on other hardware form factors, such as System-on-Chip or alternate chip areas.

Security, High performance, Cryptography, Hardware architecture, Distributed, parallel, and cluster computing